Audio Compression Explained: What is an audio compressor?
A compressor is a plugin or a piece of hardware that reduces the dynamic range of an audio signal. It does this by turning down the loud parts of a signal.
Why use compression?
Well, there’s nothing wrong with music having a strong dynamic range. In fact, dynamic range is often the thing that makes music interesting to listen to. But on a practical level, large changes in dynamics can cause a problem. Imagine a scenario where a singer performs some parts of a song loudly and other parts quietly. Where do you set the fader? If you set it to the right level during loud parts, then the level will be too quiet when the singer performs quietly. But if you set it to the correct level for the quiet parts, the level will be too loud when the singer performs loudly.
The answer is to use compression to reduce the difference between the loud parts and the quiet parts. A compressor reduces this difference by turning the loud parts down for you. You could of course automate the level of the fader to turn the level up or down according to how loud the singer is performing, but with a large track count, and with all of the tracks having varying dynamics, that’s a lot of automation to carry out. So a compressor does this job for you.
But that’s not where the use of a compressor stops. Due to the huge amount of control you have over the way a compressor turns down specific parts of a signal, you can use it to really sculpt sounds. For example, you can emphasize an instrument’s attack. Or you can emphasize an instrument’s decay. Either can be achieved simply by having the compressor turn down specific parts of your audio signal.
Audio Compression Explained: How do you use a compressor?
As mentioned, a compressor allows you a large amount of control over how dynamic range reduction is applied. When you use a compressor, you decide what volume level the compression kicks in at. That means you can let everything below a certain level remain uncompressed, and have the compressor kick in only when the signal breaches a certain threshold. You can also tell the compressor how much compression should be applied once the signal breaches that level. So you could have the compressor turn the signal down a lot, or only a little.
You also control how quickly the compressor kicks in to action to turn down a loud part and how quickly the compressor stops compressing the signal too. Also, you can turn the overall level of the signal up after it has been compressed. Having control of these settings let’s you take full control over the way that compression is applied to a signal.
Audio Compression Explained: Conclusion:
So, that’s audio compression explained. As you can see, the function of a compressor is not all that complicated. You can apply compression to any audio signal and have it turn down specific parts of a signal in exactly the way you want. This gives you the ability to alter the dynamic range of a signal to achieve multiple different results.
Do you use compression in your mixes? If so, what do you use it for?